Canadian Citizenship can be achieved in many ways:
- By birth – Any person born in Canada (exceptions do apply)
- By Descent – Any person born outside Canada to a Canadian parent (restrictions do apply)
- Grant of citizenship – E.g. PR of Canada (‘naturalization’), former citizens, etc. – conditions have to be satisfied
- Resumption – Resume one’s citizenship after it has ceased or dissolved
- Retention – This means someone has a right to Canadian citizenship, but must take certain actions to retain the right
Each of the above categories has specific requirements, exceptions and restrictions. Citizenship legislation in Canada has a history of changes, that must be kept in mind in many of the cases.
The most common category, however is Naturalization – the process of applying for Canadian citizenship by a Permanent Resident of Canada. Among other conditions, residency requirement is the main factor.
The current law requires that a PR can apply for citizenship on completion of 3 years (1095 days) residence in Canada in a 4 year period. Though the concept is fairly straightforward, complications do creep in.
Instances include short overseas trips (2-4 weeks duration), one person working abroad while family is in Canada, family staying abroad while one person is working abroad – for these and such other questions, please consult us